High-yielding popular variety of Amager cabbage
Amager is a proven variety of cabbage and different climatic conditions. We will tell you about the peculiarities of growing, how to store the crop and what it can be used for, as well as how to protect cabbage from diseases to which it is prone.
The content of the article
- Description of the Amager cabbage variety
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Features of planting and growing
- Preparing for landing
- How to make a seedless plant
- Ground requirements
- Timing, scheme and landing rules
- Growing features
- Measures to increase the yield
- Disease and pest control
- Growing difficulties
- Harvesting and storage
- Reviews of experienced gardeners
Description of the Amager cabbage variety
This late-ripening variety of white cabbage has proven its reliability over 80 years of history. Soviet scientists VNIISSOK were engaged in its breeding. Several foreign samples were taken as a basis, of which the most suitable variety was originally from Sweden.
The experiment on breeding the Amager variety began in 1927. For a long time, tests were going on, until in 1943 it was zoned and entered into the state register.
Initially, the variety had an additional digital designation "611". However, after collecting seeds in the southern regions, the numbers were removed from the name, thus marking a sub-variety with adaptation to the southern climate with high daytime temperatures and drought.
Chemical composition, trace elements and vitamins, useful properties
The main feature of cabbage is its high fiber content, which is necessary for the normal functioning of the digestive system. This is a dietary product, it contains only 27 kcal per 100 g. Sauerkraut and salted cabbage contains vitamin C, which is necessary to increase immunity to colds.
Of the useful trace elements, it is worth noting potassium, silicon, manganese, boron, cobalt, chromium. B vitamins accelerate metabolism, and folic acid is involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin and saturates the blood with oxygen.
After the harvest ripens in the cellar (1-1.5 months), Amager cabbage is used to prepare salads, soups and side dishes. However, it is believed that late varieties are most suitable for pickling and pickling, since by the time of ripening they accumulate the maximum amount of nutrients.
Amager cabbage reaches its technical ripeness 150-170 days after the first shoots appear. However, the harvest needs to lie down so that the leaves lose their bitter taste and become juicier.
Over the years, Amager has established itself both among ordinary farmers and in industrial production. With proper agricultural technology, from 1 sq. m you can get up to 7 kg of vegetables (from 1 ha - up to 65 tons).
It is necessary to regularly carry out preventive procedures to prevent fungal diseases, to which (in particular, to Fusarium) the variety has low immunity.
The variety is characterized by resistance to frost. It is possible to plant seeds and seedlings before late spring frosts, and already ripe cabbage forks can easily tolerate frost down to -3 ° C.
Characteristics, description of the appearance of leaves and head of cabbage, taste
The variety has green, smooth leaves with a waxy bloom and wavy edge. Leaf length - from 80 cm, semi-spreading rosette. The head of cabbage is dense, 70-110 cm in diameter and weighing 2.5-4 kg. When harvested, the leaves have a bitter taste, but after a while it changes for the better, becomes rich and sweet.
Growing regions and climate requirements
The Amager variety is suitable for growing in the following regions: North-West, Central, Volgo-Vyatsky, Central Black Earth, North Caucasian, Srednevolzhsky, Nizhnevolzhsky, Uralsky, West Siberian, Far Eastern.
For a good harvest, the climate should not be arid, with a late onset of winter in the absence of severe autumn frosts.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the variety include the following indicators:
- well studied and time-tested;
- stable high yield;
- ripening occurs simultaneously;
- heads of cabbage are large, dense;
- resistance to cold weather;
- long shelf life without loss of taste (until April);
- during storage, the heads of cabbage do not crack or deform.
Among the shortcomings of Amager are noted:
- the need for regular abundant watering;
- growth stops in hot weather;
- when harvesting, it has a bitter taste, the heads of cabbage need to lie down;
- susceptibility to fusarium (black rot).
Difference from other varieties and hybrids
Amager is not suitable for growing in the northern regions, where winter comes early - the harvest does not have time to ripen. In addition, the variety is prone to Fusarium disease and vascular bacteriosis.
However, Amager's shelf life is one of the longest, until the end of April. It is noted that it can be extended for a month or two if the top foliage is removed from the heads of cabbage in the spring.
Features of planting and growing
You can plant Amager on your site in two ways: seed and seedling. Experienced gardeners recommend giving preference to the second option in order to get a healthy and bountiful harvest.
Preparing for landing
The site is chosen level, well-lit, the soil should be dug up and loosened to provide a sufficient amount of moisture and air. Do not plant cabbage after radish, radish, mustard and other cabbage varieties.
For planting, it is better to use purchased seeds. They do not need to be further processed. It is important to track the expiration date - expired seeds will have low germination rates.
If the seeds obtained from the previous harvest are used, it is recommended to treat them with aloe juice, a weak solution of potassium permanganate or "Fitosporin".
Seeds for seedlings are sown in a box with soil (continuous sowing followed by picking) or in separate cups of 100-200 ml (2-3 seeds each, leaving the strongest sprout in the future). It is best to prepare the soil in the fall, so that it freezes over the winter, and bacteria and pest larvae die.
If you mix garden soil and humus in equal proportions, after planting seedlings on the beds, the sprouts will take root better and will develop faster. Other soil mixtures are also suitable:
- peat, sod land, sand (in equal parts);
- one part of peat and sand with two parts of turf;
- equal parts of sand, peat, humus and earth.
When the first shoots appear, the seedlings are transferred to a cool, well-lit place. Watering is carried out when the top layer of the earth dries up. In the first five days, the temperature regime is + 10 ... + 12 ° С. Further - from +16 to + 20 ° С.
Two weeks before being transferred to the open ground, the seedlings are hardened, taking them out into the street, starting at one hour and gradually bringing them to 12 hours.
How to make a seedless plant
In the southern regions, Amager can be planted by seed. Seeds are planted when the soil warms up to + 5 ° C. Before this, the soil is sprinkled with ash, and 5 g of urea is added to each well. The seeds are buried by 1 cm, covered with loose soil and covered with lutrasil, which is harvested 2-3 weeks after germination.
The soil for cultivation must be fertile, with neutral or close to neutral acidity (pH 6.2-7.5). Since autumn, peat, humus, ash and mineral fertilizers.
Amager needs fertile soil, so legumes, potatoes, zucchini, tomatoes and melons are the best precursors for cabbage.
Timing, scheme and landing rules
Seedlings begin to grow in late March or early April, and they are transferred to the ground after 50-55 days, when 3-4 large leaves are formed in the sprouts... The plant is placed in a hole with 5 g of urea, sprinkled with soil until the first leaves and tamped. After that, the cabbage is watered and covered with a film or cloth for the first 3-5 days.
Planting density and depth
The seeds are immersed in the soil by 1-1.5 cm, the seedlings are buried to the first leaves. Amager does not like shading, so between the plants they stand at least 80 cm, and between the rows - 60-70 cm.
By following simple agronomic techniques, you can achieve a good harvest.
After planting in open ground, young seedlings are watered every two days for two weeks. Then watering is reduced to twice a week, preventing complete drying and cracking of the soil, and increased when tying heads of cabbage (July - August). Water is taken warm, watered in the morning and evening to avoid sunburn.
Important! Cold water slows down the growth of cabbage and provokes the development of diseases.
The drip method is used, water is poured exclusively at the root. A month before harvesting, the procedure is stopped in order to increase the shelf life and prevent the heads from cracking.
Loosening and hilling
Regular weeding and loosening keeps the soil clean, strengthening the root system and keeping disease out. Loosening is required regularly, before each watering and after rainfall.
Reference. Experienced farmers use mulch (straw, sawdust, film) to reduce labor and time.
For the first time, hilling is done immediately after the formation of 2-3 large leaves. This is necessary in order to develop lateral roots. As soon as the ovary appears, the leg needs to be strengthened, so at this moment Amager is spud up a second time. Additionally, the procedure is repeated every time the stump is exposed.
In order for the harvest to please with large heads of cabbage, it is necessary to fertilize the plant. The first feeding is carried out immediately after planting the seedlings, watering the sprouts with a solution of 10 liters of water, 10 g of urea and 20 g of superphosphate.
Until July, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are applied to the soil at the rate of 20 g per 10 liters of water (2-3 times a month). Next, preparations with phosphorus and potassium are used in the same amount.
Attention! Fertilizers with nitrogen can not be used when forming heads of cabbage, as they stimulate a set of leaf mass. Therefore, after July, when heads are formed, nitrogen-containing fertilizers cannot be used.
Measures to increase the yield
Amager is loved by farmers for consistently high yields with a minimum of effort. Large and juicy heads of cabbage can be obtained by sticking to basic care rules:
- preferably transplanted;
- comply with the conditions for watering, loosening and hilling;
- make feedingcorresponding to the stage of development;
- timely carry out preventive measures to combat diseases and pests.
During the last watering, it is recommended to introduce top dressing with drugs that increase the yield: "Zdraven", "Bud", "Effekton". They stimulate the growth of the fetus, promote the concentration of vitamins and mineral salts in the fork. You can irrigate the soil with boric acid until it is completely moistened, this will help the vegetables to be better stored in winter.
Attention! In hot weather, watering is increased and the cabbage is covered with straw so that the leaves do not get sunburn and the vegetable does not stop developing.
Disease and pest control
It consists in the timely implementation of preventive measures. Before planting, ash, "Nitrofoska" from insects, mineral fertilizers are introduced into the soil, which both accelerate the growth of cabbage and increase the immunity of plants.
Saplings in the open field are treated with "Immunocytophyte". It increases the resistance of cabbage to fusarium, cabbage rot. For a solution, 1 tablet is dissolved in 2 liters of cold water. The first spraying of seedlings is carried out after adaptation to the soil, the second - before the formation of a head of cabbage.
For insects and slugs, cabbage is sprayed with a solution of ammonia (5 g per 1 liter of water). For flea beetles effective solution "Aktara" (4 g per 10 l). From folk remedies, an infusion of potato or tomato tops is used.
Important! Pests are deterred by planting lettuce, celery, leeks, and dill also improves the taste of cabbage. For the prevention of diseases, cabbage plants are not planted in the same area earlier than after 4 years.
Amager cannot be called a whimsical variety, however, when growing it, some features should be taken into account:
- in the heat, growth stops if watering is not enough;
- fungal diseases threaten cabbage, therefore regular prevention is required;
- Amager loves light, so the correct planting density is important.
Harvesting and storage
In order for the crop to lie as long as possible, it is necessary to adhere to the rules for its collection and further storage.
As soon as the night temperature drops to -3 ° C, it is necessary to start harvesting so that the heads of cabbage do not freeze. Due to the simultaneous ripening, Amager cabbage can be harvested with agricultural machinery.
For small volumes, the forks are cut by hand, leaving the top leaves to maintain their appearance. Harvesting is carried out on a dry, sunny day, in the southern regions - at the end of October, in the rest - at the end of September.
Storage features and keeping quality of the variety
A well-ventilated cellar with a temperature of + 1 ... -1 ° C is suitable for storing cabbage. Room humidity should be kept within 90-95%. Such conditions allow maintaining the harvest until April.
Reviews of experienced gardeners
Almost a century-old variety collects only positive reviews.
Natalia, Saratov region: “The variety is good, the heads of cabbage grow large, as in the photo, on average 3-4 kg. Does not require special care, the main thing is to monitor the regularity of watering. The harvest is stored until April, after which it is necessary to remove the upper leaves, otherwise the forks begin to rot. "
Alexey, Rostov region: “I plant Amager exclusively in seedlings, so the plants are more hardy, stronger. Before planting the seeds, I use biostimulants and cover the pots with a cloth for the first few days. I keep the harvest in the cellar, until May it lies calmly, does not rot. "
Amager cabbage is grown both for own use and on an industrial scale. The taste of the heads of cabbage only improves over time, which allows them to be stored until the end of spring. By following the basic agronomic techniques, you can get a rich harvest, ideal for pickling and pickling.